Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

Incoterms set out rules as published by International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) to govern the respective responsibilities and liabilities of contracting parties during the carriage and delivery of goods.

Incoterms clauses contain acronyms created by respective English definitions.

Having published in 1936 for the first time, Incoterms have been revised from time to time in 1963, 1967, 1976, 1980, 1990, and 2000 based on the changing conditions. Currently used Incoterms version 2010 entered into force as of January 1st, 2011. Any version of Incoterms may be applicable provided that the respective version is stated in the relevant agreements and/or contract documents. Incoterms rules are not legally binding on its own, but they are adopted on a voluntary basis.

Binding agreements and contract documents must include Incoterms version together with the place of loading.

3 significant variations between Incoterms version 2019 and version 2000 are applicable as follows:
E (EXW),
D (DAF, DES, DEQ, DDU, DDP) olan gruplama;
Rules for all modes of transport (EXW, FCA, CPT, CIP, DAF, DDU , DDP)
Rules for marine and inland waterways transport (FAS, FOB, CFR, CIF, DES, DEQ);
DAP was created instead of DAF, DES, DDU and DAT was created instead of DEQ;
In version 2000, the condition that the goods shall not pass the ship's rail in FOB, CFR, and CF delivery terms and in version 2010, the condition that the goods shall be loaded aboard the ship in a proper manner have been introduced.

Delivery Terms Used for All Modes of Transport

EXW – Ex Works
Delivery at the Exporter’s Premises: Delivery of the goods to a predetermined location such as a warehouse or a plant of the exporter with all costs and risks borne by the importer.

FCA – Free Carrier
Delivery to Carrier: Delivery of the goods to a carrier as determined by the importer at a location as determined in the exporter’s country.

CPT – Carriage Paid To Delivery with Carriage Paid To: Delivery in which the transport fee (i.e., freight) for the predetermined transport vehicle was paid by the exporter while insurance and other costs are borne by the importer.

CIP – Carriage and Insurance Paid To Carriage and Insurance Paid To: Mode of delivery in which the exporter assumes the freight and insurance costs up to a point as determined in the importer’s country.

DAT – Delivered at Terminal Delivered at Terminal: Delivery of the goods by unloading from the vehicle at the predetermined port/terminal in the importer’s country with all costs and risks borne by the exporter.

DAP – Delivered at Place Delivered at Place: Goods are delivered to a predetermined address in the importer’s country with all costs excluding taxes have been paid.

DDP – Delivered Duty Paid Delivered Duty Paid: Goods are delivered in the importer’s country with all costs and customs duties have been paid in full.


Pallets consist of one of the basic equipment used for handling, transport, distribution, and storage of goods. Globally, a wide range of different types of pallets are used. Standardization variations from one country to another reduce efficient use. For instance, export goods may be required to repacked with pallets compatible with the handling equipment used in the country of destination. For this reason, International Standards Organization (ISO) has adopted standard dimensions for container pallets. On the other hand, there are certain cases in which various other pallet dimensions are also applicable. The most commonly used pallet types are called Euro Pallets and Standard Pallets. Their dimensions are as follows:

Euro-pallet dimensions: Width (W): 800 mm x Length (L): 1200 mm

Standard pallet dimensions: Width (W): 1000 mm x Length (L): 1200 mm

20-Foot container dimensions: Length (L): 5900 mm x Width (W): 2350 mm x Height (H): 2390

40-foot container dimensions: Length (L): 12000 mm x Width (W): 2350 mm x Height (H): 2390

The container dimensions listed above are approximate values and therefore, please note that container dimensions may vary based on container manufacturer.

Considering the 20-foot and 40-foot container dimensions, layout without stowage may be planned as follows. More pallets may also be loaded by stowage (for stackable goods) provided that the height, strength, and type of goods allow for such stowage. In such cases where cardboard boxes are placed on pallets, special attention must be paid to avoid any protrusion out of the pallets. In addition, carrying capacity (i.e., payload) of the containers must be taken into consideration during planning. Stowage of containers should be carried out by taking all necessary measures as required for the goods to be delivered to the consignee in good condition free from any defects.

11 Euro pallets or 9 to 10 standard pallets may be loaded in a single row in a 20-foot container.

23 to 24 Euro pallets or 20 to 21 standard pallets may be loaded in a single row in a 40-foot container.